British

 

 

MANUAL

ELEMENTARY DRILL

(ALL ARMS)

1935

 

CONTENTS

PAGE

Contents i

Definitions ii

Introduction 1

CHAPTER I

SQUAD DRILL-GENERAL

 

1. General instructions for drilling recruits 1

2. Words of command 2

3. Inspection 3

CHAPTER II

SQUAD DRILL IN SINGLE RANK WITHOUT ARMS

SQUAD DRILL WITH INTERVALS

4. Formation of squads with intervals 4

5. Attention 4

6. Standing at ease 4

7. Standing easy 4

8. Dressing ii squad with intervals 5

9. Turning by numbers 5

10 Length of pace and time in marching 5

11 Position in marching 5

12 Marching in quick and slow time 6

13 Changing step 7

14. Marching in double time 7

15. The side Step 8

16. Turning when on the march 8

17 .Saluting without arms 8

SQUAD DRILL IN SINGLE RANK

18 .Formation of squads in single rank 9

19 .Dressing in single rank 9

20. Numbering a squad and proving 9

21. Opening and closing a squad 10

22. Marching in single rank 10

23. hanging the pace from quick to double time and vice versa 10

24. The di'agonal march 10

25. Changing direction 10

26. Marching in single file 11

7. Dismissing,without arms 12

CHAPTER IV

DRILL WITH ARMS

RIFLE EXERCISES

42 General rules 12

43 Falling in with rifles at the order 12

44 To stand at ease and stand easy from the order 13

45. Attention from stand at ease 13

46. The slope from the older 13

47 The order from the slope 13

48. The Present from the slope 14

49. The slope from the present 14

50. Fixing bayonets from the order 14

51. Un Fixing bayonets from the order 15

52. Inspection of Arms 15

53. Instructions for Inspecting arms 17

54. To Examine arms 17

55. The trail from the order 17

56. The order from the trail 17

57. The trail from the slope 17

58. The slope from the trail 18

59. To change arms when at the slope 18

60. To change arms when at the trail 18

61. The short trail 18

62 To sling arms ... 19

63. The on-guard from the slope and vice versa 19

64. The on-guard from the order and vice versa 19

65. The high-port from the on-guard and vice versa 19

66. To ground arms and take up arms, fromand to the order 19

67 Pilling and unpiling arms 20

ii

68 Saluting with the rifle at the slope 21

REVOLVER EXERCISES

69. To draw revolvers for inspection and examination 57

LIST OF PLATES

(At end of book)

IV. The order.

V. The slope.

VI. The present.

vii. Fixing bayonets (at two). Rear rank.

VIII. Unfixing bayonets (at one).

IX. The trail.

X. Revolver-For inspection draw arms.

Xi. Examine arras.

Hand and Arm signals

DEFINITIONS

Alignment. Any straight line on which a body of troops is formed or is to form.

Covering. - The act of a body placing itself directly in rear Of another.

Crew.- The unit of dismounted drill, the size of a crew depending on the

(Royal Tank Corps) establishment of a unit and the type of tank. For purposes of instruction in dismounted drill a crew consists of eight men.

Depth.- The space occupied by 'a body of troops from front to rear.

Directing file section, etc. - The file or section responsible for keeping direction in a movement.

Distance. The space between men or bodies of troops from front to rear.

Dress, To take up the alignment correctly, or maintain It correctly on the move.

File- A front rank man with his re" rank man. [NOTE].-A front rank man without a rear rank man is called a "blank file".

Flank, directing. -The flank by which units march or dress.

Flank, inner. -That nearer to the directing flank.

Flank, outer. -That opposite to the inner or directing flank.

Front. -The direction in which troops are facing or moving at any given time.

Frontage. -The extent of ground covered laterally by a body of troops.

Incline. -The diagonal movement by which ground is gained to the front and flank simultaneously, without altering the alignment.

Interval -The lateral space between men or units on the same alignment.

Extended Interval .-An increased interval to suit requirements.

Close interval. -A reduced interval to suit requirements.

Line .-Troops formed on the same alignment.

Markers. -Men employed in certain circumstances to mark points on which to direct a drill movement or By which to regulate a formation or alignment.

Pace. -A measurement of distance on foot (i.e., 30 inches . Also rate of movement.

Pivot.- The flank on which a body wheels. The man on that flank is termed the A pivot man".

Fixed pivot. -The term applied to the pivot when, during the wheel, the pivot man turns on his own ground.

Moving Pivot. -The term applied to the pivot when, during the wheel, the pivot man moves on the arc of a circle.

Rank. -A line of men, side by side.

Section. -The meaning differs in the different arms, as follows :

Cavalry -A subdivision of a troop. A saber section consists of four front-rank men with their coverers, if any ; a half-section (saber) consists of two front-rank men and their coverers, if any.

R.A. -A subdivision of a battery. When used with reference to foot drill, it consists of four front-rank men with their coverers, if any ; a half-section consists of two front-rank men and their coverers, if any

R.E. -A subdivision of a field company, similar to a platoon of infantry.

Infantry -A subdivision of a platoon.

R. T. C; .-A subdivision of a company,

R A.S.C -A subdivision of a company.

Serrefiles. -Such officers and other ranks of mounted units to ride in rear of the unit when in line.

Single file. - Troops on the frontage of one man.

Squad. -A small body of men formed for drill. (For Royal Tank Corps, see Crew.)

Supernumeraies. -The N.C.0s., etc., of dismounted units forming the third rank.

Wheeling. -A movement by which a body of troops brings forward a Bank on a pivot

1

MANUAL OF ELEMENTARY

DRILL, 1935

(ALL ARMS)

INTRODUCTION

1. This manual has been arranged primarily for the use of N.C.0s. of all arms of the Service, but its contents should also be known by all officers

2. The manual deals with the following subjects:-as may be detailed

i. Elementary drill, up to and including squad drill in two ranks (except troop drill (dismounted) in the case of cavalry) and sword case of cavalry) and drill with the rifle, revolver

ii Guards and sentries

iii. Those details of march discipline which all N.C.0 should know..

3. Where drill varies in different arms of the Service, explanatory notes have been inserted at the beginning of the chapters and sections concerned

4. The drill of rifle and English light infantry regiments is dealt with separately in Chapter VII.

CHAPTER I

SQUAD DRILL IN GENERAL

(Applies to All Arms except Sec. 3 as noted)

1. General instructions for drilling recruits

1. One of the objects of drill is to teach troops by exercise to obey orders- and to do so in the correct way. For this reason slovenly drill is harmful; all movements on parade will be performed smartly. Noisy stamping of the feet in' such movements as turning, coming to attention, or standing at ease is forbidden.

2. The detail of drill movements as given in the following sections is for the information of instructors only' It will not be repeated word for word to the men on parade.

3. When recruits are being taught a particular motion or exercise, the instructor will first form the squad round him and explain what is required in simple language. As soon as he is satisfied that his meaning is clear, he will proceed to the second stage demonstration-by performing the motion himself. During this stage he will point out details he has already described, and give examples of common faults. The men will then be made to perform the movement themselves, first by numbers and subsequently judging the time, the instructor taking each in turn and correcting faults.

4. Recruits will be taught that when on parade it is the duty of every man to see that he is at all times in the correct dressing from whichever flank is the directing flank. This principle applies both when falling in and during and on the completion of all parade movements, except that in ceremonial drill men will not correct their dressing on the completion of a movement until they receive the command Right (or Left)-Dress.

5. Men should be given frequent short rests between exercises.

6. With practice, men will be able to stand steady in the ranks for long periods without effort, but, at first, they should not be kept in any position long enough to produce strain or fatigue. When the men of a squad are being tested separately in any movement those not under instruction at the moment should be ordered to stand easy or to continue practicing the movement.

7. In drill movements which have two or more motions, recruits should be taught to make a uniform short pause after each motion when judging the time.

2. Words of command

1. Good drill depends in the first instance on good words of command.

2. Young officers and N.C.Os. will be practiced in giving words of command. This practice gives them confidence in themselves and accustoms them to use their voice in the best manner to produce the desired result. Words of command should be pronounced distinctly and loud enough to be heard by all concerned. A word of command to a squad of six then need not be as loud as a command to a battalion.

3. Commands which consist of one word will be preceded by a caution, which may be part of the word itself. The first or cautionary part of a word of command, will be given deliberately and distinctly: the last or executive part, which, as a rule, should consist of only one word or syllable, will be given sharply: as Platoon (slowly) Halt (sharply): Right (slowly ) Form (sharply). A pause, which should be uniform in all commands, will be made between the caution and the executive word of command.

4. The cautions and commands in this manual are, as a rule, given with regard to one flank only, but the same principles apply equally to movements to the other flank, which will also be practiced.

5. Words of command must be given at all times with precision by all ranks; indistinct and slovenly words of command produce slovenly movements and must be avoided.

6. Instructors when giving words of command must stand at attention and themselves adopt a. correct bearing, and so be an example of alertness to their men.

7. It should be remembered, that a word of command is an order which must be smartly and promptly obeyed. Instructors must observe the result of their commands at drill and check any tendency on the part of the men to carry out a movement in a slovenly manner; for instance, when men are called to attention or are ordered to stand at ease absolute steadiness and silence must be insisted on. Plenty of time should therefore be taken over the correct performance of one movement before proceeding with the next. If faults and slack habits are passed over in the early stages they will, in time, undermine discipline without which no troops can train or fight. When it is desired to resume the 2 position which obtained immediately prior to the last word of command, the command As you were may be given.

8. The words of command laid down for use in close order drill are not intended for use in movements in the field. They' are designed with a view to training the soldier's mind and body ' to habits of strict obedience to the will of the leader. In movements -n the field, words of command will be replaced by short instructions, e.g. along this track, in single file; follow me across this bridge ; get under cover of this bank, etc.

9. To move off a unit in step with the preceding unit the command March should be given as the right feet of the preceding unit are coming to the ground.

10. In the detail of squad drill the title of the movement is shown in italics and is followed by the cautionary and/or executive word of command in thick type. Cautions and words of command referred to in the detail are printed in italics.

11. The following table shows when to give words of command to men on the move during close order drill:-

Word of command Slow time Quick time

(a) (b) (c)

Halt Left foot coming to the ground. Right foot passing left.

About Turn. Right foot coming to the ground. Left foot passing right.

Right Turn. Left foot passing and Right foot passing left.

Right In-Cline. level with right

Right Form. A

Left Turn. Right foot passing and level with Left foot passing right.

Left In-Cline. left being Left foot being raised.

Break Into Quick Time " Quick " as left foot reaches ground

Quick -March. " March " as right foot reaches ground. ---------------------

(Alternate - feet.)

Break into Slow Time.

Slow March. ---------------- Left foot passing right

Mark Time. Right foot passing left. Left foot passing right

For- Ward (When marking time.) Right foot being raised. Left foot being raised

Halt. (When marking time.) As for Forward.

3. Inspection

(Paragraph 1 f this section does not apply to Royal Artillery or Royal Tank Corps Units)

1. Whenever a squad, parading in two ranks, is to be inspected the ranks will be opened for the inspection or closed on its completion by the following orders:

Open order - March. The rear rank will step back two paces and dress by the right.

Close order - March. The rear rank will step forward two paces, and dress by the right.

2. The instructor will pay attention to the personal cleanliness of the men as well as to the care of their arms, equipment, and clothing. A clean and smart turn-out must be insisted on at all times. In this respect instructors must set a high standard for young soldiers to emulate. Men learn good habits more quickly by example than by other methods.

3. Instructors will be trained in methods of inspection so that, with practice, they will be able to tell at a glance, whether each man on parade is correctly turned out or not.

4. A man ordered to adjust his dress will take a pace forward ff in the front rank, or a pace to the rear if in the rear Tank; on completion he will regain his place in the ranks by taking a pace to the rear, or forward as the case may be.

CHAPTER II SQUAD DRILL IN SINGLE RANK-WITHOUT ARMS

(Applies to All Arms except where notes to the contrary are shown)

SQUAD DRILL WITH INTERVALS

4. Formation of squads with intervals

1. A few men will be placed in single rank at arm's length apart while so formed, they will be termed a squad with intervals.

2. Instruction can best be imparted to a squad in single rank, but, if want of space makes it necessary, the squad may consist of two ranks, in which case the men of the rear rank will cover the intervals between the men in the front rank, so that in marching they may take their own points, as directed in Sec. 11, 4.

3. When recruits have learned to dress as described in Sec. 8, they will be taught to fall in, and to dress and correct their intervals immediately without any further order.

4. Care must be taken that the positions of recruits in the ranks are changed frequently, as they must be taught to drill correctly in any position in the squad.

5. Attention

Squad-Attention.

Spring up to the following position :-Heels together and in line. Feet turned out at an angle of about 45 (Cavalry 30) degrees. Knees straight. Body erect and carried evenly over the thighs, with the shoulders (which should be level and square to the front) down and moderately back-this should bring the chest to its natural forward position without any straining or stiffening. Arms hanging from the shoulders as straight as the natural bend of the arm will allow. Wrists straight. Hands closed but not clenched. Backs of the fingers touching the thigh lightly, thumb to the front and close to the fore finger, thumb immediately behind the seam of the trousers. Neck erect. Head balanced evenly on the neck and not poked forward, eyes looking their own height and straight to the front. The weight of the body should be balanced on both feet and evenly distributed between the fore part of the feet and the heels. The breathing must not in any way be restricted, and no part of the body should be either drawn in or pushed out. The position is one of readiness in expectation of the word of command, and is that adopted when addressing, or being addressed by, a superior officer.

6. Standing at ease

Stand at- Ease.

Carry the left foot about 12 inches to the left so that the weight of the body rests equally on both feet. At the same time carry the hands behind the back and place the back of the right hand in the palm of the left, grasping it lightly with the finger and thumb, and allowing the arms to hang at their' full extent. '

i. In marching order without the rifle the arms will be retained as in the position of attention.

ii. When a recruit falls in he will stand at ease after he has got his dressing.

7. Standing easy

Stand -Easy.

The limbs, head, and body may be moved but the man will not move his feet, so that on coming to attention there will be no loss of dressing. Slouching attitudes are not to be permitted. If either foot is moved men are inclined to lose their dressing. On the caution squad, etc., the correct position of stand at ease will be assumed.

8. Dressing a squad with Intervals

Right- Dress.

Each recruit, except the right-hand man, will turn his head and eyes to the right and at the same time extend his right arm, back of the hand upwards, finger tips touching the shoulder of the man on his right. He will then take up his dressing in line by moving, with short quick steps,, till he is just able to distinguish the lower part of the face of the second man beyond him. Care must be taken to carry the body backward or forward with the feet. the shoulders being,,, kept perfectly square in their original position.

Eyes- Front.

The head and eyes will be turned smartly to the front, the arm cut away to the side, and the position of attention resumed.

9. Turning by numbers

1 - Turning to the Right - One.

Keeping both knees straight and the body erect, turn to the right on the right heel and left toe, raising the left heel and right toe in doing so. On the completion of this preliminary movement, the right foot must be flat on the ground and the left heel raised ; both knees straight, and the weight of the body, which must be erect, on the right foot.

Two.

Bring the left foot smartly up to the right.

2. Turning to the Left - One.

As for above, except for right read left and versa versa.

Two.

Bring the right foot smartly up to the left,

3. Turning About- One.

Keeping both knees straight and the body erect, turn to the right-about on the right heel and left toe, raising the right toe and left heel in doing so, but keeping the right heel 4 firmly on the ground. On the completion of this preliminary movement the right foot must be flat on the ground and the left heel raised ; both knees straight, and the weight of the body, which must be erect, on the right foot.

Two.

Bring the left foot smartly up to the right.

4. Inclining is similar to turning, except that a half turn is made instead of a full turn.

5. Throughout all turns the arms must be kept close to the sides as in the position of attention.

6. In turning "judging the time" commands are Right (or Left) or About-Turn, Right (or Left) in-cline; the movements described above will be carried out on the command Turn or In-cline, observing the two distinct motions.

10 .Length of pace and time in marching

1. Length of pace.-In slow and in quick time the length of a pace is 30 inches. In stepping out it is 33 inches, in double time, 40 ; in stepping short, 21 ; and in the side pace, 12 inches. When a soldier takes a side pace to clear or cover another (as in forming fours), the pace will be 24 inches.

2. Time. - In slow time 70 paces are taken in one minute. In quick time 120 paces, equal to 100 yards in a minute, are taken. Except during the first weeks of recruit training, recruits, when not in marching order, will take 130 paces a minute in quick time at drill. In double time 180 paces, equal to 200 yards a minute, are taken. Distances of 100 and 200 yards will be marked on the drill ground, and N.C.0s. and men practiced in keeping correct time and length of pace.

11. Position in marching*

1. In marching, the soldier will maintain the position of the head and body as directed in Sec. 5. He must be well balanced. In slow time his arms and hands must be kept steady by his sides. In quick time the arms, which should be as straight as their natural bend will allow, should swing naturally from the shoulder, hands reaching as high as the waist belt in front and rear. Hands should be kept closed but not clenched, thumbs always to the front.

2. The legs should be swung forward freely and naturally from the hip joints, each leg as it swings forward being bent sufficiently at the knee to enable the foot to clear the ground. The foot should be carried straight to the front, and, without being drawn back, placed upon the ground with the knee straight, but so as not to jerk the body.

3. Although several recruits may be drilled together in a squad with intervals, they must act independently, precisely as ff they were being instructed singly. They will thus learn to march in a straight line, and to take a correct pace, both as regards length and time, without reference to the other men of the squad.( The drum and pace stick are useful aids In teaching recruits to preserve a regular cadence and correct length of pace in marching, and they should be used frequency when available.)

4. Before the squad is put in motion the instruct ,h man is square to the front and in correct take care that each or ill line with the remainder. The recruit will be taught to take a Point straight to his front, by fixing his eyes upon some distant object, and then observing some nearer point in the same straight line. The same procedure will be followed by the man on the named flank or by the named number, when Marching in other formations (see Sec. 22).

12. Marching in quick and slow time

1 The quick march.

The Squad will Advance. Quick-March.

The squad will step off together with the left foot, in quick time, observing the rules in Sec. ii.

2. The slow -march

During recruit training squad drill should be frequently practiced in slow time only.. The executive word of command will be Slow - Match. The men will step off and march as described for Quick March, but in slow time, and keeping the arms and hands steady at the sides, thumbs to the front. Each leg will be brought forward in one even motion and will be straightened as it comes to the front with the toes pointed downwards and placed on the ground before the heel.-

3. The halt.

Squad - Halt.

A pace of 30 inches will be completed with the left foot and the right foot brought up in line with it. At the same time the right hand will be cut smartly to the side.

4. Stepping out.

Step -Out.

The moving foot will complete e its pace, and the soldier will lengthen the pace by three inches, leaning forward a little, but without altering the time. This step is used when a slight increase of speed, without an alteration of time, is required; on the command Quick (or Slow) -March the normal length of pace will be resumed

5. Stepping short

Step- Short.

The foot advancing will complete its pace, after which the pace will be shortened by nine inches until the command Quick (or Slow)-March is given, when the normal length of pace will be resumed.

6. Marking time.

Mark- Time.

The foot then advancing will complete its pace, after which the time will be continued, without advancing, by raising each foot alternately about six inches, keeping the feet almost parallel with the ground, the knees raised to the front, the arms steady at the sides, and the body steady. On the command For-ward, the pace at which the men were moving will be resumed. In slow time the feet should be raised twelve inches when marking time, the ball of the foot being immediately below the point of the knee, toes pointing downwards.

7. Stepping back from the halt 5 . . . Paces. Step back - March. Step back the named number of paces of 30 inches straight to the rear, commencing with the left foot, keeping the arms still by the sides. Stepping back should not exceed four paces.

13. Changing step

1. When on the march.

Change - Step.

The advancing foot will complete its pace, and the back of the rear foot will= be brought up to the heel of the advanced one, which will make another step forward, so that the time will not be lost, two successive steps being taken with the same foot.

2. When marking time.

Change Step.

Make two successive beats with the same foot.

14 Marching In double time

1. The double march.

The Squad will Advance. Double March.

Step off with the left foot and double on the toes with easy swinging strides, inclining the body slightly forward, but maintaining its correct carriage. The feet must be picked up cleanly from the ground, at each pace, and the thigh, knee, and ankle joints must all work freely and without stiffness. The whole body should be carried forward by a thrust from the rear foot without unnecessary effort. The heels must not be raised towards the seat, but the foot carried straight to the front and the placed lightly on –the ground. The arms should swing easily from the shoulders and should be bent at the elbow, the forearm forming an angle of about 1 35 degrees with the upper arm (i.e. midway between a straight arm and a right angle at the elbow), fists slightly clenched, backs of the hands outwards, and the arms swung sufficiently clear of the body to allow of full freedom for the chest. The shoulders should be kept steady and square to the front and the head erect.

2. The halt.

Squad - Halt.

As in Sec. 12, 3, at the same time cutting away thi hands to the position of attention.

3. Marking time.

Mark- Time.

Act as in Sec. 12, 6. the arms and hands being carried as when marching in double time, but without swinging the arms.

15. The side step

1. Closing to the right (or left).

Right (or Left) Close - March, or Paces Right (or Left) Close- March.

Each man will carry his right foot 12 inches direct to the right, and instantly cfose his left foot to it, thus completing the pace; he will proceed to take the next pace in the same manner. Shoulders to be kept square. The direction must be kept in a straight line to the flank, and a uniform pause made after each pace. The number of specified paces should not exceed four.

2. The halt.

Squad -Halt.

The command Halt will be given when the number of paces has not been specified. The command will be given then take a when the heels are together ; the squad will then take a further pace in the direction ordered, and remain steady.

3. Soldiers should not usually be moved to a flank by the side step more than 12 paces.

16. Turning when on the march

1. Right (or Left)-TURN

On the command right (or Left)-TURN the left (or right) foot will be brought forward unil it is just in front of the right (or left) foot, and each man will then turn smartly in with the required direction, usoing his left (or right) foot as a pivot, and advance a full pace of 30 to the right (or left) foot. The turn to the right must be made off the left foot and to the left off the right foot.

2. About-Turn -

Complete the pace with the right foot, then commence the turn with the left foot, the turn being completed in three beats of the time in which the soldier is marching. Having completed the turn about, the soldier will at once move forward, the fourth pace being a full one and taken with the right foot. In the case of a squad with a blank file, marching in line, the blank file will mark time two paces on the word about, thus gaining his position in the new front rank before the turn is completed. Guides should act in a similar manner.

3. Right (or Left) In- Cline.

On the command marine, make a half turn in the required direction. Always be 4 Turnings and changes on the march should preceded by a cautionary word of command, e.g. The squad will adva-nce-Break into slow will move to the right-The. Squad time-Diagonal march etc.

17 SALUTING WITHOUT ARMS

1 Saluteing to the front

i Salute by Numbers- One.

Bring the right hand smartly, with a circular motion, to the head, palm to the front, fingers extended and Close together, point of the forefinger an inch above the right eye, or touching edge of peak of cap, as in illustration, thumb close to the forefinger; elbow in line, and nearly square with the shoulder, tips of the fingers, wrist and elbow in a straight line. (See Plaie 1.)

Two.

6

Cut away the arm smartly to the side by the shortest way.

ii. judging the time.

Salute, Judging the Time- Salute.

Go through the motions as in sub-para. i, above, making a pause equal to two pates in quick time between each motion.

2. Salutiizg to the side.

Saluting to the side when on the move is carried out as in para. 1, above, on the command Salute, except that, s the hand is brought to the salute, the head will be turned smartly towards the officer or instructor saluted as the left foot comes to the ground. For saluting with a cane, see Sec. 28, 6.

3. Saluting on the march.

On the command Eyes- right (or left) and Eyes--front, squads will turn their head and eyes to the rigfit (op, left) and to the front, as the left foot comes to the ground. The same principle applies for a squad with arms.

18 SQUAD DRILL IN SINGLE RANK

18. Formation of squads In single rank

Recruits will at this stage be formed in single rank without intervals, each man occupying a lateral space of 24 inches. Thus ten men occupy eight paces. The accuracy of the space should be frequently tested. Squads will fall in and dress by the right unless otherwise ordered.

NOTES. 1.- Cavalry and Royal Tank Corp)s.-An assistant instructor or more advanced recruit will be-placed as leader, three paces in front of the squad.

2.- Cavalry.-The man immediately in rear of the leader is called the center guide. When any movement is made the leader will give the appropriate signal.

(See Cavalry Training.)

19. Dressing in single rank

Right (or Left)-Dress.

1. Each man, except the man on the named flank, will look towards the flank by which he is to dress with a smart turn of the head, and. commencing with the man nearest the flank by which the dressing is made will move up or back to his place successively. To dress correctly each man must be able to see the lower part of the face of the man next but one to him. when the squad is correctly dressed the instructor will give the command Eyes-Front.

2. The above method will be taught for use on ceremonial parades only . On all other occasions each man will take up his dressing from the directing flank without any word of command, each man in succession turning his head and eyes to the front when in the correct alignment.

20. Numbering a squad and proving

1 - numbering.

Squad - Number.

The squad will number off from the right. the right-hand man calling out one, the next on his left Two, and so on. In Cavalry and Royal Artillery, each man, except the left – his head hand man, as he calls out his number will turn smartly towards his left and will at once turn it to the front again. each man as he calls out his number will In all other arms e his keep his head steady and continue to look straight to front.

2. proving.-If men are ordered to " Prove " (i-e. Odd (or Even) numbers-Prove) those so ordered stretch out their right hands to the full extent of the arm, palm to the left, fingers extended and close together, and level)with the top, of the shoulder. the left hand will When parading with rifles at the order, a similar manner. be stretched out in a similar manner.

As you were.

Those proving bring their right (or left) hands smartly to the side, without keeping the elbow too stiff.

21.Opening and closing a squad

1 - Open Ranks - March.

The odd numbers will take two paces forward and dress by the right.

2. Reform Ranks - March.

The odd numbers will step back two paces ; when the paces are completed the squad will dress as in Sec. 19, 2.

22.Marching In single rank

To advance in quick Time.

The Squad will Advance. By the Right (or Left) (or By No....), Quick - March.

As in Sec. 12, 1. Each man will preserve his position in the general line by an occasional glance towards the directing man, who will act as in Sec. ii,-4.

2. To advance in double time.

The Squad will Advance. By the Right (or Left or By No....), Double -March.

As in para. 1, above, but in double time.

23. Changing the pace from quick to double, time, and vice versa

1. From quick time to double time.

Break into double time. Double. -March.

Complete the next pace in quick time and then continue ill double time as in Sec. 14.

2. From double time to quick time.

Break into quick time. Quick -March.

Complete the next pace in double time and then break into quick time, dropping the arms to their usual position,8.

24. The diagonal march. (Plate 11, Fig. 1.)

The right diagonal march.

Diagonal march. Right In -cline.

Each man will make a half turn in the required direction, and, if on the march, will move diagonally in- that direction, as in Sec. 16.

25. changing direction. (Plate II, Fig. 2.)

(This section does not apply to Cavalry and Royal Tank Corps units.)

1. Royal Artillery.

Wheeling.

Recruits will first be taught to wheel from the halt. After which they will be instructed to wheel while on the march. It will be explained to the squad that, in wheeling, the flank which is brought forward is termed the outer flank ; the other, the inner or pivot flank. The method of wheeling will be the same as laid down in Sec. 31, 6.

2. Royal Engineers, Infantry and R.A.S.C.

i. When halted.

Change direction Right. Right - Form.

The right-hand man will make a fun turn in the required direction, and the remainder a right incline.

Quick- March.

The right-hand man will lead on two paces and mark time, and the remainder will mark time in succession when they come up into the new alignment.

For -ward.

The squad will move forward in the new direction.

ii. When on the move.

Change direction Right. Right - Form.

The right-hand man will make a full turn in the required direction, lead on two paces, and mark time; the-remainder will incline to the right and mark time in succession as they, come up into the new alignment.

For -ward.

The squad will move forward in the new direction.

iii. If the command is proceeded by the caution At the Halt, each man will halt and take up his dressing on reaching the new alignment.

iv. Forming at any angle will be practiced.

26. Marching in single file

(This section does not apply' to Cavalry and Royal Tank Corps units. Only paragraphs 1 to 3 apply to Royal Artillery.)

1. From the halt.

Move to the Right (or-Left) in single file. Right (or left) -Turn

As in Sec. 9. The men will cover each other exactly.

Quick -March.

The whole will step off, without increasing or diminishing the distance from each other.

I. This movement will also be practiced on the move.

ii. Should the squad be required to move in the original direction the command will be -The squad Will advance. Left (or Right)-Turn.

2. Changing direction.

Change direction Right. Right- Wheel.

The leading man will move round a quarter of the circumference of a circle, having a radius of four feet. The other men,. in succession, will follow in his footsteps without increasing or diminishing their distances from each other or altering the time, but shortening the pace a little *with the inner foot.

3. Rear Files-Cover.

If the squad is halted or ordered tor mark time when only a part of the men have wheeled into the new direction, the men who have not yet wheeled will cover off on those who have, moving to their places by the shortest route.

4. Forming squad. (Plate 11, Fig. 3.)

On the Left (or Right), Form Squad.

The leading man will lead on two paces and mark time. the remainder will make a left (or right) incline and move up into line with him, marking time as they come into line.

For - ward.

The squad will move on in line in the direction in which it was originally marching in file. When squad is formed on the right the left will normally be, ordered to direct.

5. If the order is At the Halt, on the Left (or Right), Form- Squad. The leading man will lead on two paces and halt, the remainder will make a left (or right) incline and form upon him, halting and dressing as they come into line.

27. Dismissing without arms

Squad. Dis- miss.

The squad will turn to the right, salute and, after a pause equal to four paces in quick time, break off quietly and leave the parade ground in quick time. If no officer is on parade the men will not salute before they break off .

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CHAPTER IV DRILL WITH ARMS RIFLE EXERCISES

42. General Rules

1. Squad drill with arms will be combined with instruction in the care of arms, including the name of the principal parts of the rifle, and aiming and firing.

2. It is important that this instruction should begin from the time the recruit is issued with his rifle,in order to avoid faulty methods in the early stages.

3. When rifle exercises are per-formed judging the time, when halted, the motions will be carried out at the rate of 60 to the minute. When performed judging the time, on the march, each motion will be carried out as the left foot meets the ground.

4. Squads drilling with rifles will be practiced in the different marches and variations of step described in the foregoing sections. The disengaged arm will be allowed to swing naturally as described in Secs. 11 and 14.

5. During the handling of the rifle and throughout every movement of it, the head must be kept perfectly still, except where expressly stated otherwise.

6. Dismissing. As laid down in Sec. 27, but arms will be sloped before the squad is dismissed. On wet days, to avoid damaging the uniform with wet rifles, troops may be dismissed at the order.

NOTES.-

1. In the Royal Artillery, rifle exercises will not be performed at inspections, but will only be practiced by formations larger than a squad for ceremonial purposes.

2. In the Royal Tank Corp Rifle exercises will be practiced at the depot only.

3. Instructions for riding with the rifle for mounted troops, will be found in the Manual of Horse mastership, Driving and Equitation.

43. Falling in with rifles at the order

The recruit will fall in as described in Sec. 18 with the rifle held perpendicularly at his right site, the. butt on the ground, its too in line with the toe of the right boot. The right arm to be slightly bent, the hand to hold the rifle at or near the band, back of the hand to the right, thumb against the thigh, fingers together and slanting towards the ground, elbow to the rear. (Plate IV). When each man has taken up his dressing, he will stand at ease.

44. To stand at ease and stand easy from the order

1. Standing at ease.

Stand at- Ease.

Carry the left foot about 12 inches to the left so that the weight of the body rests equally on both feet. At the same time push the muzzle of the rifle smartly forward with the right hand, the right arm straight, and close to the side, without allowing the right shoulder to drop, toe of the butt remaining in line with the toe of the right boot, the left arm to be kept in the position of attention.

2. Standing easy.

Stand- Easy.

On the command Stand-Easy, the right hand will be slip up the rifle to the piling while and 'be men will act as in Sec. 7.

3. On the caution Squad, etc. the right hand will be slid down to the band, and the position of stand at ease assumed.

4. The above procedure is the same with or without bayonets fixed.

45. Attention from stand at ease

Squad- Attention.

The left foot will be brought smartly up to the right and the rifle returned to the order.

46. The slope from the order

Slope Arms- One

Throw the rifle upwards with the right hand, catching it with both hands at the same time, left hand at the back sight, the right hand at the small of the butt, thumb to the left, elbow to the rear, right arm nearly straight, rifle kept perpendicular, close into the right side, shoulders to be kept square.

Two.

Carry the rifle across the body, and place it flat on the left shoulder, magazine outwards from the body. As the rifle comes on the shoulder seize the butt with the left hand, the first two joints of the fingers grasping the upper side of the butt, the thumb about one inch above the toe, left elbow close to the -,side, forearm horizontal, and the heel of the butt in line with the center of the left thigh.

Three. (Plate V.)

Cut away the right hand to the position of attention. Rifle to be kept perfectly still.

47. The order from the slope

Order Arms -One

Bring the Rifle down to the full extent of the left arm, at the same time meeting it with the right hand where it is held at the order, arm close to the body. Butt not to be drawn to the rear.

Two.

10

Bring the rifle to the right side, steadying it at the time with the left hand at the nose cap, butt just clear of the ground.

Three.

Place the butt quietly on the ground, cutting the left hand away to the side.

48. The present from the slope

Present Arms- One.

Grasp the rifle with the right hand at the small, forearm close to the body.

Two.

Raise the rifle with the right hand perpendicularly in front magazine to the left; at the same of the center of the body, at the same time place the left hand smartly on the stock, wrist on the magazine, fingers pointing upwards, thumb close to the fore finger, point of the thumb in line with the mouth; tile left elbow to be close to the butt, the right elbow and butt close to the body.

Three. (Plate VI.)

Quitting the rifle with the left hand bring the rifle down perpendicularly in front of and about three inches from the center of the body, turning the-magazine to the front, holding at the full extent of the right arm, fingers to-ether slanting downwards, and meet it smartly with the left hand immediately behind the back sight, outside the sling, thumb pointing towards the muzzle ; at the same time, place the hollow of the right foot against the, left heel, both knees straight. The weight of the rifle to be supported by the left hand.

49. The slope from the present

Slope Arms- One.

Bring the right foot up in lire with the left and at the same time place the rifle on the left shoulder as described in the second motion of the slope from the order.

Two.

Cut away the right hand to the side ; rifle to be kept still.

50. Fix bayonets from the order

(This section does not apply to Cavalry and Royal Artillery.)

Fix.

The right-hand man will take three pace forward at the short trail. In the case of a company in line the number of paces taken by the right-hand man will be seven; in the case of a larger body of troops than a company, when in line 15 paces will be taken.

Bayonets- One.

Seize the handle of the bayonet with the left hand, back of the hand to the front, thumb and fingers to the rear, withdrawing the bayonet sufficiently to allow the left arm to become straight; at the same time push the muzzle of the rifle sharply forward ; front rank men turning the head and eyes to the right, looking straight at the right-hand man who will look to the left.

Two. (Plate VII.)

Taking the time from the right-hand man, draw the bayonet, turning the point upwards and keeping the elbow down. Place the handle on the bayonet standard, with the ring over the stud on the nose cap pressing it home to the catch. The left hand should be placed as shown in the illustration. Body and head to be erect. After pressing his bayonet to the catch, the right-hand man will raise his disengaged arm to the full extent upwards at an angle of 135 degrees.

Three.

Taking the time from the right-hand man br the order ; at the same time cut away the left hand to the side, front rank turning the head and eyes to the front. The right-hand man will then take three paces to the rear, at the short trail, and align himself with the front Rank n the case of a company or larger body of troops in line. the right-hand man will turn about and, at the short trail, resume his original position. In the above motions the front rank will time their movements by the right-hand man and the rear rank will take their time from the front rank.

51. Unfixing bayonets from the order

(This section does not apply to Cavalry and Royal Artillery.)

Unfix.

The left-hand man will step forward at the short trail, as in fixing bayonets.

Bayonets- One. (Plate VIII.)

Keeping the heels closed, place the rifle between and grip . nit with the knees, guard to the front. At the same time seize the rifle with the left hand, knuckles to the front' thumb on the bayonet bolt spring ; the right hand rifle. to be kept on the rifle

Two

Seize the bayonet handle smartly with the right hand, knuckles to the front: 'draw the rifle towards the body with the knees and press the spring with the left thumb. Raise the bayonet about one inch, holding it in a vertical position, and at the same time the front rank men, turning the head and eyes to the left, will look straight at the lefthand man. Rear rank looking to the front. The left-hand man raising his right arm straight and upwards at an angle of 135 degrees, at the same time turning his head and eyes to the right.

Three

Taking the time from the left-hand man, drop the point to the left side, ring to the rear, returning the bayonet halfway into the scabbard,keeping the forearm square with the body (the left hand forcing his bayonet home) at the same time seize the scabbard with the left hand, thumb underneath the frog, guiding the bayonet into the scabbard with the forefinger of the left hand.

Four

The left-hand man will raise his right hand smartly as in Two, and on this signal remainder will force the bayonet home.

Five

Taking the time from the left-hand man seize the rifle with the right hand at the band retaining hold of the scabbard with the left hand.

Six.

Taking the time from left-hand man return to the order and at the same time cutting the left hand to the side, front rank turning the head and eyes to the front. The left-hand man will then take three paces to the rear, at the short trail, and align himself with the front Rank n the case of a company or larger body of troops in line the left-hand man will turn about and, at the short trail, resume his original position In the above motions the front rank time their movements by the left-hand man and the rear rank will take their time from the front rank.

52. Inspection of arms

1. A squad, parading in two ranks, will be opened and closed as in Sec. 3, 1.

2. Inspection of arms from the order.

For Inspection, Port - Arms.

Throw the rifle, muzzle leading, with the right hand smartly across the body, magazine to the left and downwards, the barrel crossing opposite the point of the left shoulder, and meet it at the same time with the left hand close behind the back sight, thumb and fingers round the rifle, the left wrist to be opposite the left breast, both elbows close to the body. Turn the safety catch completely over to the front with the thumb of the- right hand. Pull out the cut-off, first pressing it downward with the thumb, then seize the knob with the forefinger and thumb of the right hand, and, taking the time from the right-hand man, turn it sharply upwards, and draw back the bolt to its full extent ; then seize the butt with the right hand immediately behind the bolt, thumb pointing to the muzzle.

3. Inspection of arms from the slope.

For Inspection, Port Arms- One.

Seize the rifle with the right hand at the small of the butt.

Two.

Bring the rifle down to the Port, meeting it with the left hand close behind the back sight; then proceed as in para. 2, above.

4. To ease springs, or change magazines and come to the order.

Ease- Springs.

From the position described above, work the bolt rapidly backwards and forwards until -all cartridges are removed from the magazine and chamber * allowing them to fall to the ground, then close the cut-off (except with S.M.L.E. Mark III * rifles, which have no cut-off) by placing the right hand over the bolt and pressing the cut-off inwards, then close the breech), press the trigger, turn the safety catch"over to the rear with the first finger of the right hand, and return the hand to the small.

Charge -Magazines.

The magazine will hold two Chargers of five cartridges each, but should, in ordinary circumstances, be loaded with only If it is desired to charge the magazine without loading the rifle, the top cartridge may be pressed downward with the thumb and the cutoff closed. The breech will then be closed, trigger pressed and the safety catchapplied.. When using a rifle which is not fitted with a cut-off and it is required to charge magazines, keep the pressure on the top cartridge with the thumb of the right hand and draw the bolt head over it with the little finger, close the breech, press the trigger and apply the safety catch.

5. To Order arms from the port

Order Arms - One.

Holding the rifle firmly in the left hand, seize it with the right hand where it is held at the order.

Two.

As in the second motion of the order from the slope.

Three.

As in the third motion of the order from the slope

6. To slope arms from the port.

Slope Arms One

Place the rifle on the left shoulder as described in the second motion of the slope from the order (Sec. 46).

Two.

As in the third motion of the slope from the order.

53. Instructions for inspecting arms

When arms are inspected at the port, only ,as in inspecting a platoon on parade, the officer, warrant officer, or N.C.O. will. see that the exterior of the rifle is clean and free from rust; that the magazine and action are clean and in good order; that the sights are at zero ; and that no parts are loose or damaged. He will here and there examine the bore of a rifle to see that it has been cleaned and is free from obstructions.

12

2. Each soldier, when the officer, warrant officer or N.C.O. has passed the file next to him, will, without further word of command, ease springs, order arms and stand at ease.

54. To examine arms

Examine Arms.

Both ranks,.being at the part, will come to the position for loading (see Small Arms Training, Vol. 1), with the muzzle so inclined as to enable the officer, warrant officer or N.C.O. to look through the barrel, the thumbnail of the right hand barrel being placed in front of the bolt to reflect light into the soldier, when the officer, warrant officer or N.C.O. has passed the next file to him, will act as detailed in the position of for injection, port arms, will be cautioned to remain at the port. Ranks will be closed, as in Sec. 3,

1, when the examination has been completed.

ii. In ordering arms from the examine, the first motion will be to sel,:e the rifle with the right hand where it is held at the order, at the same time bring the left foot back to the right. With the second motion the rifle will be brought to the right side, the left hand steadying the rifle, as in the second motion of the order from the slope. The third motion is the same as the third motion of the order from the slope.

55. The trail from the order. (Plate IX.)

The trail is not normally used in close order drill except by rifle and English light infantry regiments. It will be used, however, in the field.

Trail- Arms.

By a slight bend of the right arm give the rifle a cant forward and seize it at the point of balance, bringing it at once to a horizontal position at the side at the full extent of the right arm, which should hang easily from the shoulder, fingers and thumb round tile rifle.

56. The order from the trail

Order -Arms.

Raise the muzzle, catch the rifle at the band and come to the order.

57. The trail from the slope

Trail Arms- One.

Keeping the rifle in the position of the slope, seize it at the point of balance with the right hand.

Two.

With the right hand bring the rifle to a horizontal position the right side (as in Sec. 55), at the same time cutting the left hand to the side.

58. The slope from the trail

Slope Arms- One.

With the right hand place the rifle on the left shoulder in the position of the slope, at the same time seizing the butt with the left hand as in the second motion of the slope from the order (Sec. 46).

Two.

Cut away the right hand to the side.

59. To change arms when at the slope.

Change Arms- One.

Seize the butt of the rifle with the right hand, back of the hand up, at the same time slipping the left hand up to the small.

Two.

Carry the rifle, turning the magazine outwards, on to the right shoulder, bringing it well to the front. so as to clear the head.

Three.

Cut the left hand to the side. To change arms from the right to the left shoulder act as above, reading left for right, and right for left.

60. To change arms when at the trail

Change Arms- One

Bring the rifle to a perpendicular Position in front of the right shoulder, magazine to the front,- upper part of the arm close to the side, forearm horizontal, hand in line with the waist-belt.

Two.

Pass the rifle across the front of the body, catching it with the left hand at the point of balance, -t the same time cutting the right baud smartly to the side. In this position the rifle is to be held perpendicularly and opposite the left shoulder, magazine to the front, upper part of the left arm close to the side, left forearm horizontal, hand in line with the waist-belt.

Three.

Lower the rifle to the full extent of the left arm at the trail. To change arms from the left to the right act as above, reading left for right and right for left.

61. The short trail

13

No word of command.

Raise e the rifle about three inches from the ground, keeping otherwise in the position of the order. If standing with ordered arms, and directed to form fours, to close to the right or left, to step back, or to take any named number of paces, men will come to the short trail.

62. To sling arms

1. With unfixed bayonets.

Sling- Arms.

The sling of the rifle having been loosened to the full extent, the soldier will pass his head and right arm between the sling and rifle, muzzle upwards, rifle hanging diagonally across the back.

2. With fixed bayonets.

Sling - Arms.

The sling of the rifle having been loosened sufficiently, the rifle will be slung by passing the sling over the right or left shoulder, with the rifle hanging in a perpendicular position behind the shoulder. The rifle will be carried slung by dismounted signalers, brakemen and drivers leading pack animals.

63. The on-guard from the slope and vice versa

1. On-Guard- One.

Seize the rifle with the right hand smartly at the small.

Two.

Bring the rifle down in front of the body, bayonet pointing to the front and slightly upwards, grasping it with the right hand at the small of the butt (which should be just in front of the right thigh), and with the left hand holding the rifle in the most convenient position in front of the back sight so that the left arm is only slightly bent. At the same time take a short pace forward with the left foot ; left knee slightly bent.

2. Slope Arms- One.

Place the rifle on the left shoulder, seizing the butt with the left hand as for the slope, at the same time brings, the left foot back to the right and turn to the front.

Two.

Cut away the right hand to the side.

64. The on-guard from the order and vice versa

Throw the rifle up with the right hand and come smartly to the on-guard position, as described in Sec. 63, 1, at Two.

2. Order Arms- One.

Seize the rifle with the right hand where it is held at the order, and come to the order, at the same time bring the left foot back to the right and turn to the front, steadying the rifle with the left hand.

Two.

Cut away the left hand to the side.

65. The high-port from the on-guard and vice versa

1. High--Port.

keeping the grasp of the rifle as in the on-guard position, bring the rifle to a -diagonal position across the front of the body. The muzzle pointing upwards, magazine to the front and butt sufficiently advanced to enable it to be brought instantly to the shoulder to fire.

2. On-Guard.

Return to the o"-guard position.

66 To ground and take up arms, from and to the order

1. Ground Arms- One.

Bend down and place the rifle gently on the ground at the right side, the band in line with the right toe, magazine to the right, muzzle pointing straight to the front.

Two.

Pick up the rifle and return smartly to the order.

Take up Arms One

Bend down and seize the rifle with the right hand ",here it is held at the order.

Two

Pick up the rifle and return smartly to the order.

67. Piling and unpiling arms.

Pile Arms- One

The front rank will turn about, placing the butts of their rifles between their feet. The odd numbers will turn the magazines of their rifles towards the right flank of the squad.

14

the even numbers towards the left flank of the squad, at the same time the rear rank will take a pace forward, turning the magazines of their rifles to the rear.

Two

The odd numbers of the front rank will seize the rifles of the even numbers with the left hand crossing the muzzles, magazines turned outwards, at the same time raising the piling swivels with the forefinger and thumb of both hands. The even numbers of the front rank will resume the position of attention.

Three.

The even numbers of the rear rank will incline their muzzles to the front and place their rifles under their right arms, guards uppermost, at the same time seizing the pilling swivel with the forefinger and thumb of the left hand. They will then link swivels through the crossed muzzles of the front rank, lower the butts to the ground, placing them six inches to the right of and in line with their right toes.

Four.

The odd numbers of the rear rank, and supernumerary rank (if any), will place their rifles perpendicularly against the pile nearest to them and resume the position of attention.

Stand- Clear.

Ranks will step back one pace and turn to the right flank of the squad, i.e. the front rank turns to the left and the rear rank to the right.

i. If ranks have been changed the squad, etc. will be renumbered before arms are piled.

ii. If piling arms on parade the command Fall-Out will be given after Stand-Clear. On again falling in the men will place themselves as they stood before falling out.

2. Unpiling arms.

Stand- To.

Ranks will turn inwards and take a pace forward.

Unpile Arms One.

The whole will seize their rifles at the band with the right hand.

Two.

The whole will incline their butts inwards until the swivels become unlinked, and return to the order, at the same time the original left-hand man of the front rank will Rank his disengaged arm to an angle of 135 degrees, the rear rank looking in his direction.

Three

Taking the time from the original left-hand man of the front rank, who will cut his hand to his side, the front rank will turn about and the rear rank will turn their head and eyes to the front and take a pace to the rear.

68. Saluting with the rifle at the slope

1. Saluting to the front.

Salute (by Numbers) - One

Bring the right hand smartly to the butt, forefinger just below the small of the butt, forearm horizontal, back of the hand uppermost, fingers straight, thumb close to the forefinger.

Two.

Cut away the arm smartly to the side by the shortest way.

ii. judging the time.

Salute, (Judging the Time) - Salute.

Go through the motions as in para. 1, i, above, making a pause equal to two paces in quick time between each motion.

2. Saluting to the side.

Saluting to the side when on the move is carried out as in para. 1, above, on the command Salute, except that, as the hand is brought to the salute, the head will be turned smartly towards the officer or instructor saluted as the left foot comes to the ground. The principles of saluting with a cane (see Sec. 28, 7) apply.

REVOLVER EXERCISES

NOTES.-

1. The movements laid down in the following section apply only to the Royal Tank Corps.

2. In the case of other arms, men armed with revolvers prove revolvers " as laid down in Small Arms Training. Vol. I, when the command For inspection,

Port Arms is given, and will remain at the "prove" if the command examine-Arms is given. When arms are ordered, they will A return revolvers

69. To draw revolvers for inspection and examination

I. To draw revolvers for inspection. For Inspection-Draw. The right hand man will take three paces forward.

Arms- One.

Both hands will be carried to the case, the right hand grasping the butt of the revolver and the left hand unfastening the leather tag of the case; elbows to be close to the body; front rank men will turn their heads and eyes to the right looking straight at the right-hand man, who will look to the left.

Two.

15

On a signal given by a forward movement of the right-hand man's left elbow, revolvers will be drawn and brought to a position in front of the body with the left hand grasping the barrel (which should be pointing to the ground); the thumb of the left hand to be on the fluting and incline with the second button from the top of the tunic, and the thumb of the right hand to be on the barrel catch, pressing it down so as to release the barrel strap. The left elbow should be close to the side and to the right of the elbow in line with the scrolder.

 

 

 

 

 

Britain

For All Members of American Expeditionary Forces in Great Britain

INTRODUCTION

YOU are now in Great Britain as part of an Allied offensive -to meet Hitler and beat him on his own ground. For the time being you will be Britain's guest.  The purpose of this guide is to start getting you acquainted with the British, their country, and their ways.

America and Britain are allies.  Hitler knows that they are both powerful countries, tough and resourceful. He knows that they, with the other United Nations, mean his crushing defeat in the end.

So it is only common sense to understand that the first and major duty Hitler has given his propaganda chiefs is to separate Britain and America and spread distrust between them.  If he can do that, his chance of winning might return.

No Time to Fight Old Wars. If you come from an Irish-American family, you may think of the English as persecutors of the Irish, or you may think of them as enemy Redcoats who fought against us in the American Revolution and the War of 1812.  But there is no time today to fight old wars over again or bring up old grievances.  We don't worry about which side our grandfathers fought on in the Civil War, because it doesn't mean anything now.

We can defeat Hitler's propaganda with a weapon of our own.  Plain, common horse sense; understanding of evident truths.

The most evident truth of all is that in their major ways of life the British and American people are much alike.  They speak the same language.  They both believe in representative government, in freedom of worship, in freedom of speech. But each country has minor national characteristics which differ.  It is by causing misunderstanding over these minor differences that Hitler hopes to make his propaganda effective.

British Reserved, Not Unfriendly.  You defeat enemy propaganda not by denying that these differences exist, but by admitting them openly and then trying to understand them. For instance : The British are often more reserved in conduct than we.  On a small crowded island where forty-five million people live, each man learns to guard his privacy carefully-and is equally careful not to invade another man's privacy.

So if Britons sit in trains or busses without striking up conversation with you, it doesn't mean they are being haughty and unfriendly.  Probably they are paying more attention to you than you think.  But they don't speak to you because they don't want to appear intrusive or rude.

Another difference.  The British have phrases and colloquialisms of their own that may sound funny to you.  You can make just as many boners in their eyes.  It isn't a good idea, for instance, to say "bloody" in mixed company in Britain-it is one of their worst swear words.  To say: "I look like a bum" is offensive to their ears, for to the British this means that you look like your own backside ; it isn't important-just a tip if you are trying to shine in polite society.   Near the end of this guide you will find more of these differences of speech.

British money is in pounds, shillings, and pence.  (This is explained more fully later on.)   The British are used to this system and they like it, and all your arguments that the American decimal system is better won't convince them. They won't be pleased to hear you call it "funny money," either.   They sweat hard to get it (wages are much lower in Britain than America) and they won't think you smart or funny for mocking at it.

Don't Be a Show Off.  The British dislike bragging and showing off.  American wages and American soldier's pay are the highest in the world.  When pay day comes it would be sound practice to learn to spend your money according to British standards.  They consider you highly paid.  They won't think any better of you for throwing money around; they are more likely to feel that you haven't learned the common-sense virtues of thrift.  The British "Tommy" is apt to be specially touchy about the difference between his wages and yours.  Keep this in mind.  Use common sense and don't rub him the wrong way.

You will find many things in Britain physically different from similar things in America.  But there are also important similarities-our common speech, our common law, and our ideals of religious freedom were all brought from Britain when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.  Our ideas about political liberties are also British and parts of our own Bill of Rights were borrowed from the great charters of British liberty.

Remember that in America you like people to conduct themselves as we do, and to respect the same things.  Try to do the same for the British and respect the things they treasure.

The British Are Tough. Don't be misled by the British tendency to be soft-spoken and polite.  If they need to be,  they can be plenty tough.  The English language didn't spread across the oceans and over the mountains and jungles and swamps of the world because these people were panty-waists.

Sixty thousand British civilians-men, women, and children-have died under bombs, and yet the morale of the British is unbreakable and high.  A nation doesn't come through that, if it doesn't have plain, common guts.   The British are tough, strong people, and good allies.

You won't be able to tell the British much about "taking it." They are not particularly interested in taking it any more.  They are far more interested in getting together in solid friendship with us, so that we can all start dishing it out to Hitler.

THE COUNTRY

England is a small country, smaller than North Carolina or Iowa.  The whole of Great Britain-that is England and Scotland and Wales together-is hardly bigger than Minnesota. England's largest river, the Thames (pronounced "Terns") is not even as big as the Mississippi when it leaves Minnesota. No part of England is more than one hundred miles from the sea.

If you are from Boston or Seattle the weather may remind you of home.  If you are from Arizona or North Dakota you will find it a little hard to get used to.  At first you will probably not like the almost continual rains and mists and the absence of snow and crisp cold.  Actually, the city of London has less rain for the whole year than many places in the United States, but the rain falls in frequent drizzles.   Most people get used to the English climate eventually.

If you have a chance to travel about you will agree that no area of the same size in the United States has such a variety of scenery.  At one end of the English Channel there is a coast like that of Maine.  At the other end are the great white chalk cliffs of Dover.  The lands of South England and the Thames Valley are like farm or grazing lands of the eastern United States, while the lake country in the north of England and the highlands of Scotland are like the White Mountains of New Hampshire.  In the east, where England bulges out toward Holland, the land is almost Dutch in appearance, low, flat, and marshy.   The great wild moors of Yorkshire in the north and Devon in the southwest will remind you of the Badlands of the Dakotas and Montana.

Age instead of Size. On furlough you will probably go to the cities, where you will meet the Briton's pride in age and tradition.  You will find that the British care little about size, not having the "biggest" of many things as we do. For instance: London has no skyscrapers. Not because English architects couldn't design one, but because London is built on swampy ground, not on a rock like New York, and skyscrapers need something solid to rest their foundations on.  In London they will point out to you buildings like Westminster Abbey, where England's kings and greatest men are buried, and St. Paul's Cathedral with its famous dome, and the Tower of London, which was built almost a thousand years ago.  All of these buildings have played an important part in England's history. They mean just as much to the British as Mount Vernon or Lincoln's birthplace do to-us.

The largest English cities are all located in the lowlands near the various seacoasts.  In the southeast, on the Thames, is London-which is the combined New York, Washington, and Chicago not only of England but of the far-flung British Empire.  Greater London's huge population of twelve million people is the size of Greater New York City and all its suburbs with the nearby New Jersey cities thrown in.  It is also more than a quarter of the total population of the British Isles. The great "midland" manufacturing cities of Birmingham, Sheffield, and Coventry (sometimes called "the Detroit of Britain") are located in the central part of England.  Nearby on the west coast are the textile and shipping centers of Manchester and Liverpool.  Further north, in Scotland, is the world's leading shipbuilding center of Glasgow.  On the east side of Scotland is the historic Scottish capital, Edinburgh, scene of the tales of Scott and Robert Louis Stevenson which many of you read in school.  In southwest England, at the broad mouth of the Severn, is the great port of Bristol.

Remember There's a War On. Britain may look a little shop-worn and grimy to you.   The British people are anxious to have you know that you are not seeing their country at its best.   There's been a war on since 1939-  Tile houses haven't been painted because factories are not making paint-they're making planes.  The famous English gardens and parks are either unkept because there are no men to take care of them, or they are being used to grow needed vegetables.  British taxicabs look antique because Britain makes tanks for herself and Russia and hasn't time to make new cars.  British trains are cold because power is needed for industry, not for heating.  There are no luxury dining cars on trains because total war effort has no place for such frills.   The trains are unwashed and grimy because men and women are needed for more important work than car-washing.  The British people are anxious for you to know that in normal times Britain looks much prettier, cleaner, neater.

Although you read in the papers about "lords" and "sirs," England is still one of the great democracies and the cradle of many American liberties. Personal rule by the King has been dead in England for nearly a thousand years.  Today the King reigns, but does not govern.  The British people have great affection for their monarch but have stripped him of practically all political power.   It is well to remember this in your comings and goings about England.  Be careful not to criticize the King.  The British feel about that the way you would feel if anyone spoke against our country or our flag.  Today's King and Queen stuck with the people through the blitzes and had their home bombed just like anyone else, and the people are proud of them.

Britain the Cradle of Democracy.  Today the old power of the King has been shifted to Parliament, the Prime Minister, and his Cabinet.  The British Parliament has been called the Mother of Parliaments, because almost all the representative bodies in the world have been copied from it.  It is made up of two Houses, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.  The House of Commons is the most powerful group and is elected by all adult men and women in the country, much like our Congress.  Today the House of Lords can do little more than add its approval to laws passed by the House of Commons.  Many of the "titles" held by the lords (such as "baron" and "duke" and "earl") have been passed from father to son for hundreds of years.  Others are granted in reward for outstanding achievement, much as American colleges and universities give honorary degrees to famous men and women.  These customs may seem strange and old- fashioned but they give the British the same feeling of security and comfort that many of us get from the familiar ritual of a church service.

The important thing to remember is that within this apparently old-fashioned framework the British enjoy a practical, working twentieth century democracy which is in some ways even more flexible and sensitive to the will of the people than our own.

 

THE PEOPLE-THEIR CUSTOMS AND MANNERS

The Best Way to get on in Britain is very much the same as the best way to get on in America.  The same sort of courtesy and decency and friendliness that go over big in America will go over big in Britain.  The British have seen a good many Americans and they like Americans.  They will like your frankness as long as it is friendly.   They will expect you to be generous.  They are not given to back-slapping and they are shy about showing their affections.  But once they get to like you they make the best friends in the world. In "getting along" the first important thing to remember is that the British are like the Americans in many ways-but not in all ways.  You are quickly discovering differences that seem confusing and even wrong.  Like driving on the left side of the road, and having money based on an "impossible" accounting system, and drinking warm beer.  But once you get used to things like that, you will realize that they belong to England just as baseball and jazz and coco-cola belong to us.

The British Like Sports. The British of all classes are enthusiastic about sports, both as amateurs and as spectators of professional sports.  They love to shoot, they love to play games, they ride horses and bet on horse races, they fish.   (But be careful where you hunt and fish.   Fishing and hunting rights are often private property.)  The great "spectator" sports are football in the autumn and winter cricket in the spring and summer.  See a "match" in either of these sports whenever you get a chance.  You will get a kick out of it-if only for the differences from American sports.

Cricket will strike you as slow compared with American baseball, but it isn't easy to play well.  You will probably get nothing but a private contest between the bowler (who corresponds to our pitcher) and the batsman (batter) and you have to know the fine points of the game to understand what is going on.

Football in Britain takes two forms.   They play soccer, which is known in America; and they also play "rugger," which is a rougher game and closer to American football, but is played without the padded suits and headguards we use. Rugger requires fifteen on a side, uses a ball slightly bigger than our football, and allows lateral but not forward passing. The English do not handle the ball as cleanly as we do, but they are far more expert with their feet.  As in all English games, no substitutes are allowed.  If a man is injured, his side continues with fourteen players and so on.

You will find that English crowds at football or cricket matches are more orderly and polite to the players than American crowds.  If a fielder misses a catch at cricket, the crowd will probably take a sympathetic attitude.  They will shout "good try" even if it looks to you like a bad fumble.  In America the crowd would probably shout "take him out." This contrast should be remembered.

It means that you must be careful in the excitement of an English game not to shout out remarks which everyone in America would understand, but which the British might think insulting.

In general, more people play games in Britain than in America and they play the game even if they are not good at it.    You can always find people who play no better than you and are glad to play with you.  They are good sportsmen and are quick to recognize good sportsmanship wherever they meet it.

Indoor Amusements.  The British have theaters and movies (which they call "cinemas") as we do.  But the great place of recreation is the "pub."  A pub, or public house, is what we could call a bar or tavern.  The usual drink is beer, which is not an imitation of German beer as our beer is, but ale.   (But they usually call it beer or "bitter".)   Not much whiskey is now being drunk.  War-time taxes have shot the price of a bottle up to about $4·50·  The British are beer-drinkers-and can hold it.  The beer is now below peacetime strength, but can still make a man's tongue wag at both ends.

You are welcome in the British pubs as long as you remember one thing.   The pub is " the poor man's club," the neighborhood or village gathering place, where the men have come to see their- friends, not strangers.  If you want to join a darts game, let them ask you first (as they probably will).  And if you are beaten it is the custom to stand aside and let someone else play.

The British make much of Sunday. All the shops are closed, most of the restaurants are closed, and in the small towns there is not much to do.  You had better follow the example of the British and try to spend Sunday afternoon in the country.

British churches, particularly the little village churches, are often very beautiful inside and out.  Most of them are always open and if you feel like it, do not hesitate to walk in. But do not walk around if a service is going on.

You will naturally be interested in getting to know your opposite number, the British soldier, the "Tommy" you have heard and read about.  You can understand that two actions on your part will slow up the friendship-swiping his girl, and not appreciating what his army has been up against.  Yes, and rubbing it in that you are better paid than he is.

Children the world over are easy to get along with. British children are much like our own.  The British have reserved much of the food that gets through solely for their children. To the British children you as an American are "something special."  For they have been fed at their schools and impressed with the fact that the food they ate was sent to them by Uncle Sam.  You don't have to tell the British about lend-lease food.  They know about it and appreciate it.

Keep Out of Arguments. You can rub a Britisher the wrong way by telling him "we came over and won the last one." Each nation did its share.  But Britain remembers that nearly a million of.her best manhood died in the last war.  America lost 60,000 in action.

Such arguments and the war debts along with them are dead issues.  Nazi propaganda now is pounding away day and night asking the British people why they should fight "to save Uncle Shylock and his silver dollar."  Don't play into Hitler's hands by mentioning war debts.

Neither do the British need to be told that their armies lost the first couple of rounds in the present war.  We've lost a couple, ourselves, so do not start off by being critical of them and saying what the Yanks are going to do.  Use your head before you sound off, and remember how long the British alone held Hitler off without any help from anyone.

In the pubs you will hear a lot of Britons openly criticizing their Government and the conduct of the war.  That isn't an occasion for you to put in your two-cents worth.  It's their business, not yours.  You sometimes criticize members of your own family-but just let an outsider start doing the same, and you know how you feel !

The Briton is just as outspoken and independent as we are. But don't get him wrong.  He is also the most law abiding citizen in the world, because the British system of justice is just about the best there is.  There are fewer murders, robberies, and burglaries in the whole of Great Britain in a year than in a single large American city.

Once again, look, listen, and learn before you start telling the British how much better we do things.  They will be interested to hear about life in America and you have a great chance to overcome the picture many of them have gotten from the movies of an America made up of wild Indians and gangsters.  When you find differences between British and American ways of doing things, there is usually a good reason for them.

British railways have dinky freight cars (which they call "goods wagons") not because they don't know any better. Small cars allow quicker handling of freight at the thousands and thousands of small stations.

British automobiles are little and low-powered.  That's because all the gasoline has to be imported over thousands of miles of ocean.

British taxicabs have comic-looking front wheel structures. Watch them turn around in a 12-foot street and you'll understand why.

The British don't know how to make a good cup of coffee. You don't know how to make a good cup of tea. It's an even swap.

The British are leisurely-but not really slow. Their crack trains held world speed records.  A British ship held the trans-Atlantic record.  A British car and a British driver set world's speed records in America.

Do not be offended if Britishers do not pay as full respects to national or regimental colors as Americans do.  The British do not treat the flag as such an important symbol as we do. But they pay more frequent respect to their National Anthem. In peace or war "God Save the King" (to the same tune of our "America") is played at the conclusion of all public gatherings such as theater performances.  The British consider it bad form not to stand at attention, even if it means missing the last bus.  If you are in a hurry, leave before the National Anthem is played.  That's considered alright.

On the whole, British people-whether English, Scottish, or Welsh-are open and honest.  When you are on furlough and puzzled about directions, money, or customs, most people will be anxious to help you as long as you speak first and without bluster.  The best authority on all problems is the nearest "bobby" (policeman) in his steel helmet.  British police are proud of being able to answer almost any question under the sun.  They're not in a hurry and they'll take plenty of time to talk to you.

The British welcome you as friends and allies. But remember that crossing the ocean doesn't automatically make you a hero. There are housewives in aprons and youngsters in knee pants in Britain who have lived through more high explosives in air raids than many soldiers saw in first class barrages in the last war.

BRITAIN AT WAR

At Home in America you were in a country at war. Now, however, you are in a war zone.  You will find that all Britain is a war zone and has been since September, 1939-   All this has meant great changes in the British way of life.

Every light in England is blacked out every night and all night.  Every highway signpost has come down and barrage balloons have gone up.  Grazing land is now ploughed for wheat and flower beds turned into vegetable gardens. Britain's peacetime army of a couple of hundred thousand has been expanded to over two million men.  Everything from the biggest factory to the smallest village workshop is turning out something for the war, so that Britain can supply arms for herself, for Libya, India, Russia, and every front.  Hundreds of thousands of women have gone to work in factories or joined the many military auxiliary forces.  Old-time social distinctions are being forgotten as the sons of factory workers rise to be officers in the forces and the daughters of noblemen get jobs in munitions factories.

But more important than this is the effect of the war itself. The British have been bombed, night after night and month after month.  Thousands of them have lost their houses, their possessions, their families.  Gasoline, clothes, and railroad travel are hard to come by and incomes are cut by taxes to an extent we Americans have not even approached.  One of the things the English always had enough of in the past was soap.  Now it is so scarce that girls working in the factories often cannot get the grease off their hands or out of their hair. Food is more strictly rationed than anything .else.

The British Came Through. For many months the people of Britain have been doing without things which Americans take for granted.  But you will find that shortages, discomforts, blackouts, and bombings have not made the British depressed.  They have a new cheerfulness and a new determination born out of hard time and tough luck.  After going through what they have been through it's only human nature that they should  be more than ever  determined to win.

You came to Britain from a country where your home is still safe,  food is still plentiful,  and lights are still burning. So it is doubly important for you to remember that the British soldiers and civilians are living under a tremendous strain. It is always impolite to criticize your hosts.  It is militarily stupid to insult your allies.  So stop and think before you sound off about lukewarm beer, or cold boiled potatoes, or the way English cigarettes taste.

If British civilians look dowdy and badly dressed, it is not because they do not like good clothes or know how to wear them. All clothing is rationed and the British know that they help war production by wearing an old suit or dress until it cannot be patched any longer.  Old clothes are "good form." One thing to be careful about-if you are invited into a British home and the host exhorts you to "eat up-there's plenty on the table," go easy.  It may be the family's rations for a whole week spread out to show their hospitality.

Waste Means Lives. It is always said that Americans throw more food into their garbage cans than any other country eats.   It is true.   We have always been a "producer" nation. Most British food is imported even in peacetimes, and for the last two years the British have been taught not to waste the things that their ships bring in from abroad.  British seamen die getting those convoys through.  The British have been taught this so thoroughly that they now know that gasoline and food represent the lives of merchant sailors.  And when you burn gasoline needlessly, it will seem to them as if you are wasting the blood of those seamen, and when you destroy or waste food you have wasted the life of another sailor.

British Women at War.  A British woman officer or non-commissioned officer can and often does give orders to a man private. The men obey smartly and know it is no shame. For British women have proven themselves in this war.  They have stuck to their posts near burning ammunition dumps, delivered messages afoot after their motorcycles have been blasted from under them.  They have pulled aviators from burning planes.  They have died at the gun posts and as they fell another girl  has  stepped  directly into the position and "carried on."  There is not a single record in this war of any British woman in uniformed service quitting her post or failing in her duty under fire.

Now you understand why British soldiers respect the women in uniform.  They have won the right to the utmost respect. When you see a girl in khaki or air-force blue with a bit of ribbon on her tunic-remember she didn't get it for knitting more socks than anyone else in Ipswich.

ENGLISH VERSUS AMERICAN LANGUAGE

In your contacts with the people you will hear them speaking "English."  At first you may not understand what they are talking about and they may not understand what you say.   The accent will be different from what you are used to, and many of the words will be strange, or apparently wrongly used.  But you will get used to it.  Remember that back in Washington stenographers from the South are having a hard time to understand dictation given by business executives from New England and the other way around.

In England the "upper crust" speak pretty much alike. You will hear the news broadcaster for the B.B.C. (British Broadcasting Corporation).  He is a good example, because he has been trained to talk with the cultured accent.  He will drop the letter "r" (as people do in some sections of our own country) and says "hyah" instead of "here."  He uses the broad a, pronouncing all the a's in "Banana" like the a in "father."  However funny you may think this is, you will be able to understand people who talk this way and they will be able to understand you.  You will soon get over thinking it is funny.

You will have more difficulty with some of the local dialects. It may comfort you to know that a farmer or villager from Cornwall very often can't understand a farmer or villager in Yorkshire or Lancashire.  But you will learn and they will learn to understand you.

Some Hints on British Words. British slang is something you will have to pick up for yourself.  But even apart from slang, there are many words which have different meanings from the way we use them and many common objects have different names.  For instance, instead of railroads, automobiles, and radios, the British will talk about railways, motor-cars, and wireless sets.  A railroad tie is a sleeper.  A freight car is a goods wagon.  A man who works on the roadbed is a navvy.  A streetcar is a tram.  Automobile lingo is just as different.   A light truck is a lorry.   The top of a car is the hood.  What we call the hood (of the engine) is a bonnet.  The fenders are wings.  A wrench is a spanner. Gas is petrol-if there is any.

Your first furlough may find you in some small difficulties because of language difference.  You will have to ask for sock suspenders to get garters and for braces instead of suspenders if you need any.   If you are standing in line to buy (book) a railroad ticket or a seat at the movies (cinema) you will be queuing (pronounced "cueing") up before the booking office.  If you want a beer quickly, you had better ask for the nearest pub.  You will get your drugs at a chemist's and your tobacco at a tobacconist, hardware at an ironmonger's.   If you are asked to visit somebody's apartment, he or she will call it  a  flat.

A unit of money, not shown in the following table, which you will sometimes see advertised in the better stores is the guinea (pronounced "ginny" with the "g" hard as in "go").  It is worth 21 shillings, or one pound plus one shilling.  There is no actual coin or bill of this value in use.   It is merely a quotation of price.

A coin not shown in the table below is the gold sovereign, with a value of one pound.  You will read about it in English literature but you will probably never see one and need not bother about it.

 SOME IMPORTANT DO'S AND DONT'S

Be friendly but don't intrude anywhere it seems you are not wanted.  You will find the British money system easier than you think.  A little study beforehand will make it still easier.

You are higher paid than the British "Tommy." Don't rub it in.  Play fair with him.  He can be a pal in need.

Don't show off or brag or bluster-"swank" as the British say.   If somebody looks in your direction and says, "he's chucking his weight about," you can be pretty sure you're off base.  That's the time to pull in your ears.

If you are invited to eat with a family don't eat too much. Otherwise you may eat up their weekly rations.

Don't make fun of British speech or accents.  You sound just as funny to them but they are too polite to show it.

Avoid comments on the British Government or politics.

Don't try to tell the British that America won the last war or make wise-cracks about the war debts or about British defeats in this war.

Never criticize the King or Queen.

Don't criticize the food, beer, or cigarettes to the British. Remember they have been at war since 1939.

Use common sense on all occasions. By your conduct you have great power to bring about a better understanding between the two countries after the war is over.

You will soon find yourself among a kindly, quiet, hardworking people who have been living under a strain such as few people in the world have ever known.  In your dealings with them, let this be your slogan :

It is always impolite to criticize your hosts;

It is militarily stupid to criticize your allies.

TABLE OF BRITISH CURRENCY

Copper Coin

Symbol

1/4d.
1/2d.
1 d.
3 d.

Name

farthing (rare)
halfpenny ("hay-p'ny")
penny
threepence ("thruppence or "thrup'ny bit") ; rare

British value

1/4 penny
1/2 penny
1 penny
3 pence

American value
(Approximate)
1/2 cent.
1 cent.
2 cents.
5 cents.

Silver Coins

3 d

6 d
1 s.
2 s.
2 s. 6 d.
5 s.

threepence ("thruppence' or "thrup'ny bit")-not common in cities
sixpence
shilling (or "bob")
florin (fairly rare)
Half crown (or two and six)
crown (rare)

3 pence

6 pence
12 pence
2 shillings
2 ½ shillings
5 shillings

5 cents.

10 cents.
20 cents.
40 cents.
50 cents.
$1.00

Paper Currency

10s.

£1
£5

10-shilling note

pound note
5-pound note

10 shillings
(or ½ pound)
20 shillings
5 pounds


$2.00
4.00
20.00

 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The measures of length and weight are almost the same as those used in America.  The British have inches, feet, yards, pints, quarts, gallons, and so forth.  You should remember, however, that the English (or "Imperial") gallon contains about one-fifth more liquid than the American gallon.


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